- CRISPR gene-editing technology comes up with a test that detects the pandemic virus in just 5 minutes.
- The diagnostic does not require expensive lab equipment to run.
- CRISPR tests work by identifying a sequence of RNA, about 20 RNA bases long, that is unique to SARS-CoV-2.
- Researchers are working to validate their test setup and are looking into commercialization.
Researchers have used CRISPR gene-editing technology to come up with a test that detects the pandemic coronavirus in just 5 minutes, reports Science.
This comes at a time when this unique gene-editing tool won the 2020 chemistry noble prize.
The diagnostic does not require expensive lab equipment to run and could potentially be deployed at doctor’s offices, schools, and office buildings.
“It looks like they have a really rock-solid test,” says Max Wilson, a molecular biologist at the University of California (UC), Santa Barbara. “It’s really quite elegant.”
CRISPR diagnostics are just one-way researchers are trying to speed pandemic testing. The new test is the fastest CRISPR-based diagnostic yet.
In May, for example, two teams reported creating CRISPR-based coronavirus tests that could detect the virus in about an hour, much faster than the 24 hours needed for conventional pandemic diagnostic tests.
CRISPR tests work by identifying a sequence of RNA—about 20 RNA bases long—that is unique to SARS-CoV-2.
They do so by creating a “guide” RNA that is complementary to the target RNA sequence and, thus, will bind to it in solution.
When the guide binds to its target, the CRISPR tool’s Cas13 “scissors” enzyme turns on and cuts apart any nearby single-stranded RNA.
These cuts release a separately introduced fluorescent particle in the test solution.
When the sample is then hit with a burst of laser light, the released fluorescent particles light up, signaling the presence of the virus.
These initial CRISPR tests, however, required researchers to first amplify any potential viral RNA before running it through the diagnostic to increase their odds of spotting a signal.
That added complexity, cost, and time, and put a strain on scarce chemical reagents.
Amplifying the test sensitivity
Now, researchers led by Jennifer Doudna, who won a share of this year’s Nobel Prize in Chemistry for her co-discovery of CRISPR, report creating a novel CRISPR diagnostic that doesn’t amplify coronavirus RNA.
Instead, Doudna and her colleagues spent months testing hundreds of guide RNAs to find multiple guides that work in tandem to increase the sensitivity of the test.
In a new preprint, the researchers report that with a single guide RNA, they could detect as few as 100,000 viruses per microliter of solution.
And if they add a second guide RNA, they can detect as few as 100 viruses per microliter.
That’s still not as good as the conventional coronavirus diagnostic setup, which uses expensive lab-based machines to track the virus down to one virus per microliter, says Melanie Ott, a virologist at UC San Francisco who helped lead the project with Doudna.
However, she says, the new setup was able to accurately identify a batch of five positive clinical samples with perfect accuracy in just 5 minutes per test, whereas the standard test can take 1 day or more to return results.